lunes, 19 de agosto de 2013

Handaxe Design Reveals Distinct Neanderthal Cultures

A study by a postgraduate researcher at the University of Southampton has found that Neanderthals were more culturally complex than previously acknowledged. Two cultural traditions existed among Neanderthals living in what is now northern Europe between 115,000 to 35,000 years ago.

This shows Neanderthal handaxes of varying designs -- examined by Dr. Karen Ruebens for her study. (Credit: Image courtesy of University of Southampton)
Dr Karen Ruebens from the Centre for the Archaeology of Human Origins (CAHO) and funded by the Arts and Humanities Research Council (AHRC) examined the design of 1,300 stone tools originating from 80 Neanderthal sites in five European countries; France, Germany, Belgium, Britain and the Netherlands.

Dr Ruebens' investigations uncovered new evidence that two separate handaxe traditions or designs existed -- one in a region now spanning south-western France and Britain -- the other in Germany and further to the East. In addition, she found an area covering modern day Belgium and the Netherlands that demonstrates a transition between the two. [...] sciencedaily.com/

Actualización 21-08-13. Hachas de neandertales revelan la existencia de diferencias culturales
...  Ahora, un nuevo estudio profundiza sobre la cultura de estos habitantes en el norte de Europa, de hecho, el equipo en la Universidad de Southhampton, distinguió dos tipos de tradiciones: Pobladores de la región occidental hicieron hachas de mano simétricas, triangulares y en forma de corazón, mientras que durante el mismo período de tiempo pero en la región oriental, los pobladores produjeron cuchillos bifaciales en forma asimétrica.

Ciertamente, una de las maravillas de estudiar fósiles de asentamientos neandertales, y de otros tipos también, es la idea de remontarse a decenas de miles de años atrás, atrapar entre los dedos una hacha que fue creada, modelada y usada por un neandertal a lo mejor hace cincuenta mil años. En la imagen, por ejemplo, cortesía de la universidad, podemos observar varios diseños de estas herramientas. La doctora Karen Ruebens, autora principal de este estudio, examinó junto a su equipo el diseño de 1.300 herramientas de piedra procedentes de 80 sitios de neandertales en cinco países europeos, Francia, Alemania, Bélgica, Gran Bretaña y los Países Bajos.

“Hemos encontrado que hay dos tradiciones de hacha de mano separadas y con límites claros en Alemania y Francia, lo que indica desarrollos completamente independientes. También encontramos una zona de transición entre Bélgica y el norte de Francia que sugiere contacto entre los diferentes grupos de neandertales, algo que generalmente es difícil de identificar pero de lo que se ha hablado mucho, sobre todo en relación con contactos posteriores con grupos de humanos modernos.

Esta área puede ser considerada como una intersección de ideas por donde pasaban los grupos neandertales nómadas, tanto de la tradición oriental como la occidental, e influían en los diseños, dejando tras de sí un variado historial de herramientas bifaciales”, aseguró Ruebens.

Estos resultados añaden una nueva perspectiva arqueológica acerca de las regiones del Neandertal, un concepto también identificado en los estudios de características del esqueleto y la genética. De hecho, las teorías van un poco más allá y profundizan en las tradiciones sociales de la especie. La habilidad de hacer herramientas era pasada de una generación a otra lo que indica un mecanismo fuerte de aprendizaje y nos habla sobre la conexión y la estabilidad entre grupos. Factores como la disponibilidad de los materiales, las funciones de esos lugares y la reutilización de las herramientas también fueron estudiadas.

“Hacer herramientas de piedra no era una simple tarea oportunista. Un montón de tiempo, esfuerzo y tradición fue invertido en ello y estas herramientas llevan cierta cantidad de información socio-cultural que no está ligada directamente a sus funciones”, añadió.

Keeping up with the latest fashion trends of antiquity

Attempting to beautify one’s appearance for the opposite sex is certainly not a recent phenomenon, a new dig in Konya has shown. Researchers have found evidence of women’s fashion sense from antiquity


 There might not have been many fashion magazines to peruse for all the season’s hottest tips, but new archaeological excavations in the Central Anatolian province of Konya have shown women devoted serious attention to beauty and jewelry – even several millennia ago.

Researchers have discovered seals with geometric motifs that women stamped their bodies with and beads that they put on their necks and arms to appear beautiful for men in tombs at the 10,500-year-old site of Boncuklu Höyük, according to the head of the excavation and a member of Liverpool University’s Archaeology Department, Professor Douglas Baird.

Ornaments of women

“In our excavations we discovered ornaments alongside female skeletons, while we usually found arrow heads and hunting materials around male skeletons,” he said. “As a result of these findings we can conclude that 10,500 years ago women paid attention to how they look in order to impress men.”

Boncuklu Höyük is located in Hayıroğlu in the district of Karatay and was home to the ancestors of people who lived in the 9,000-year-old settlement of Çatalhöyük. Excavations at the site began in 2006, Baird said, adding that this year’s dig started on July 15 with a team of 36 people.

In light of their findings inside the excavated houses, Baird said it was possible to consider Boncuklu Höyük as the precursor to the civilization at Çatalhöyük.

“Our excavations will focus on the interior of the architectural constructions. We are planning to find tombs by descending into the bottom layers,” said Baird, noting that this year, they would carry out excavations in four different sites in the region.

Speaking about the house they excavated and the items they found inside it, Baird said: “We discovered small holes inside the house. These belong to weaving looms, which shows that people living in those times were involved in textile manufacturing. We also revealed that these people mounted the heads of animals on walls to showcase their power.”  hurriyetdailynews.com

Link 2Boncuklu Site – 15 AUGUST 2013: FINDS OF THE WEEK

1/3.

Entrada relacionada

Tsunami theory uncovered at Northumberland dig

A Northumberland dig has uncovered evidence of a huge tsunami 8000 years ago which helped cut Britain off from the Continent

1/11
Evidence uncovered by a Northumberland dig of the catastrophic event which helped cut Britain off from the Continent thousands of years ago has triggered an “emergency” grant of £70,000 to continue the excavations.

The archaeological investigation of a Bronze Age burial mound on the cliff side at Druridge Bay was due to end tomorrow.

But dig leader Dr Clive Waddington of Archaeological Research Services Ltd, backed by community volunteers, has revealed a layer of up to a metre deep of material deposited by a tsunami.

It is believed that this could have been part of an upheaval which made Britain an island, and could be of huge significance to researchers.

In what is known as the Storegga Slide, a huge section of the Norwegian coastal shelf collapsed, causing a tidal wave in the North Sea basin more than 8,000 years ago. [...] thejournal.co.uk/

Entrada relacionada