sábado, 1 de marzo de 2014

Tecnología cerámica - UNED

21 feb 2014. La cerámica es empleada por el hombre desde que en el Neolítico comenzaron a crearse las primeras sociedades productoras. Qué es la cerámica y cuándo aparece, cómo se obtiene la pasta cerámica, qué técnicas de fabricación empleaban, cuáles eran las principales formas y tipos cerámicos así como los distintos tipos de decoración, serán las cuestiones a las que responderá este programa.

Francisco Javier Muñoz Ibáñez, profesor de Prehistoria (UNED); José Manuel Quesada López, profesor de Prehistoria (UNED).

Banquete en Altamira

Escena con la recreación de la vida cotidiana de una comunidad del Paleolítico. / DM
¿Qué comían los sapiens del Paleolítico que pintaron la cueva?

Hace escasos minutos varios individuos de la comunidad de homo sapiens que ocupan la cueva de Altamira, después de una dura jornada de caza en los bosques de la zona, han llegado al vestíbulo de la gruta con un ciervo de tamaño medio que va a ser el sustento de todos durante los próximos días. Nadie oculta su satisfacción. De inmediato comienzan los trabajos para aprovechar al máximo la pieza. Con la ayuda de material lítico previamente tallado, proceden a desollar el animal para aprovechar la piel; será necesaria para usarla como vestimenta. Luego trocearán el ciervo y una parte de su carne se acercará directamente al fuego sujetada por una estructura realizada con madera. El asado es la técnica fundamental para preparar el ciervo, aunque hay algún miembro del clan que prefiere introducir bloques de piedra en la hoguera para luego poner un trozo de carne sobre ella -vaya, lo que hoy llamamos en los restaurantes 'carne a la piedra'-. Casi todo está inventado hace siglos. [...]  eldiariomontanes.es

Neanderthals cleared of driving mammoths over cliff in mass slaughter

Researchers doubt mammoths would ever have ventured up to the high, rocky plateau where Neanderthals were alleged to have chased them. Photograph: Getty
New evidence suggests it would have been impossible to stampede mammoths to their deaths at site in Jersey

Heaps of mammoth and woolly rhino bones found piled up at the foot of a cliff were thought to be the grim results of Neanderthals driving the beasts over the edge.

The piles of bones are a major feature at La Cotte de St Brelade on Jersey, one of the most spectacular Neanderthal sites in Europe. But the claim that they mark the remains of mass slaughter has been all but ruled out by a fresh investigation.

Researchers have found that the plateau that ends at the cliff edge was so rocky and uneven that mammoths and other weighty beasts would never have ventured up there. Even if the creatures had clambered so high, the Neanderthals would have had to chase them down a steep dip and back up the other side long before the animals reached the cliff edge and plunged to their doom.

"I can't imagine a way in which Neanderthals would have been able to force mammoths down this slope and then up again before they even got to the edge of the headland," said Beccy Scott, an archaeologist at the British Museum. "And they're unlikely to have got up there in the first place."

Hundreds of thousands of stone tools and bone fragments have been uncovered at the Jersey site where Neanderthals lived on and off for around 200,000 years. The site was apparently abandoned from time to time when the climate cooled, forcing the Neanderthals back to warmer territory.

Scott and her colleagues drew on a survey of the seabed that stretches away from the cliff to reconstruct the landscape when the Neanderthals lived there. The land, now submerged under higher sea levels, was cut with granite ravines, gullies and dead-end valleys – a terrain perfect for stalking and ambushing prey.

"The site would have been an ideal vantage point for Neanderthal hunters. They could have looked out over the open plain and watched mammoths, woolly rhinos and horses moving around. They could see what was going on, and move out and ambush their prey," said Scott. Details of the study are published in the journal Antiquity.

The researchers have an alternative explanation for the bone heaps. Neanderthals living there may have brought the bones there after hunts, or from scavenged carcasses, and used them for food, heating and even building shelters. Older sediments at the site are rich with burnt bone and charcoal, suggesting the bones were used as fuel. The heaps of bones were preserved when Neanderthals last abandoned the site, and a fine dust of silt blew over and preserved the remains.

Archaeologists have investigated the site at La Cotte de St Brelade since the mid-19th century. More artefacts have been unearthed here than at all the other Neanderthal sites in the British Isles put together.
The exposed coastal site, one of the last resting places of the Neanderthals, was battered by fierce storms in February, raising fears that ancient remains at the site had been destroyed.

A new view from La Cotte de St Brelade, Jersey (This article is FREE)

History of Ancient Los Angeles Was Driven by Its Wetlands, 8,000-Year Survey Finds

It may be hard to visualize if you’ve been through drought-stricken southern California lately, but much of what’s now Los Angeles was once a teeming wetland. And a new landmark survey going back 8,000 years has found that human settlement in the region has ebbed and flowed with the levels of the sea and the waters of the Los Angeles River.

An artist’s depiction shows an early Tongva settlement in the Ballona Wetlands. The Tongva are thought to have first settled what’s now the Los Angeles area between 9,000 and 2,500 years ago. (Detail of painting by by Mary Leighton Thomson)
Since 1989, a team of scientists has conducted scores of archaeological surveys, drilled dozens of cores into the coastal soil, and pored over countless microscopic fossils to reconstruct the environmental and human history of Los Angeles.

They found that the historical heart of L.A. has been the marshy flats now known as the Ballona wetlands.
Today, the wetlands are little more than a grassy inlet near the upscale development of Marina del Rey. But for much of prehistory, according to the team’s results, human habitation in the region only flourished when those wetlands were at their healthiest.

“This is one of the largest and most important archaeological studies ever conducted in southern California,” said Dr. Richard Ciolek-Torello of Statistical Research, Inc., who helped lead more than 100 archaeologists in the research. [...] westerndigs.org/ / Reference