lunes, 5 de diciembre de 2016

Los humanos contaminaron el primer río hace 7.000 años


Wadi Faynan, Jordan. Image: Sue Haylock/Barqa Landscape Project

Con las primeras etapas del desarrollo de la metalurgia a manos de los neolíticos

La contaminación industrial puede parecer un fenómeno moderno, pero se acaban de hallar evidencias de lo que podría ser el primer río contaminado del mundo, hace aproximadamente 7.000 años, según señala la Universidad de Waterloo en un comunicado.

El profesor Russell Adams, del Departamento de Antropología de esta universidad canadiense, y sus colegas encontraron en un lecho de río seco en la región deWadi Faynan, al sur de Jordania, pruebas de contaminación temprana causada por la combustión del cobre.

Los resultados de la investigación, publicados en Science of the Total Environment, arrojan luz sobre un momento decisivo en la historia, cuando los seres humanos comenzaron a pasar de hacer herramientas de piedras a hacer herramientas de metal. Este período, conocido como la época calcolítica o de cobre, es un período de transición entre el Neolítico tardío o Edad de Piedra y el comienzo de la Edad de Bronce.

«Estas poblaciones estaban experimentando con fuego, experimentando con cerámica y experimentando con minerales de cobre, y estos tres componentes forman parte de la producción temprana de metales de cobre a partir de minerales», dijo Adams. «La innovación tecnológica y la difusión de la adopción y el uso de los metales en la sociedad marcan el comienzo del mundo moderno».

La gente creó el cobre en este momento combinando el carbón de leña y el mineral de cobre azulverde encontrado en abundancia en esta área en los crisoles de cerámica o los recipientes y calentando la mezcla sobre un fuego. El proceso requería tiempo y mano de obra intensiva y, por esta razón, pasaron miles de años antes de que el cobre se convirtiera en una parte central de las sociedades humanas.

Muchos de los objetos creados en la primera fase de la producción de cobre fueron principalmente simbólicos y cumplieron una función social dentro de la sociedad. Lograr objetos raros y exóticos era una manera con la que los individuos alcanzaban prestigio. [...] abc.es


Humans Have Been Causing Environmental Disasters for 7,000 Years
Humans have always had a tendency to view bodies of water as giant dumpsters. You put the gook and trash in and then it magically disappears—or floats someplace else at least. The problem is, dirty water makes people and animals sick, and as examples such as the syringe tide—where medical waste and trash washed up on New York City beaches in the late 1980’s— have taught us, all the nastiness comes back to us eventually.

Polluted waterways are a phenomenon that’ve become almost synonymous with the modern, industrialized era, but it appears fouling up our waters is something people have been doing for a long time. A group of international anthropologists have found evidence for what may be the oldest known polluted river in human history. Humans were contaminating it with copper some 7,000 years ago in Southern Jordan. Not only does this finding tell us that we’ve been dirtying up our surroundings for some time, but it also provides a glimpse at a revolutionary turning point in human history: when people stopped making tools out of stone and began forging them from metal. The findings are published in Science of the Total Environment. [...] Motherboard

Anglesey dig discovers human remains at 'internationally important' neolithic site


1/3.  Human remains including teeth have been found at neolithic dig site at Llanfaethlu, Anglesey  

Archeology site at Llanfaethlu promises to revolutionise how we view origins of North Wales agriculture

Two partial sets of human remains have been found at a massive neolithic site on Anglesey.

Archaeologists have also unearthed a fourth house from the period at the Llanfaethlu dig.

CR Archeology have been working at the site since late 2014 and have called the discoveries made there "unparalleled".

More than 6,000 artefacts have been recovered which is the most of any Prehistoric site in North Wales and these include a massive range of pottery styles from both the neolithic and Bronze age.

The discovery of two partial sets of human remains could cause a "revolution" in how historians view the origins of North Wales agriculture, say CR Archeology, who have been working with Anglesey Council, Wynne Construction and Gwynedd Archaeological Planning Services.

The dig site is set to become Ysgol Rhyd y Llan, a new superschool for the catchment.


Archaeologist Catherine Rees said: "Human remains are incredibly rare outside of megalithic tombs in this area as bone seldom survives in North Wales.

"Several teeth have been recovered which will enable scientists to discover more about Anglesey’s first farmers."

Teeth hold vital information about the individual’s diet and contain details of where the person grew up... (Video) Daily Post

It pre-dates Stonehenge: 'Spectacular' discovery of Teesside's oldest house is confirmed


3/11. Artist's impression of how the house may have looked

Being nearly 6,000 years old makes it the oldest house on Teesside - and potentially the oldest neolithic house in Yorkshire

The results are in - and the discovery of what’s thought to be Teesside’s oldest house has been confirmed.

Earlier this year, Dr Steve Sherlock and fellow Teesside Archaeological Society members were excavating at a known site near Loftus when he found evidence of a house - a very old house.

They’d been trying to find evidence of a pottery kiln after a substantial Roman building was found nearby in 2013.

Instead, they found an oval house buried deep into the ground.

Hazelnut shells and other items found during the dig were sent off to experts at the Scottish Universities Environmental Research Centre.

And after using radiocarbon dating techniques, they’ve now confirmed the house dates from between 3,942BC to 3,706BC.

Being nearly 6,000 years old makes it the oldest house on Teesside - and potentially the oldest neolithic house in Yorkshire.

It’s even older than Stonehenge... (Video) Gazette Live

Hi-tech replica to bring prehistoric art of Lascaux within reach

 
An exhibition space in Lascaux 4. Photograph: © Casson Mann

£48m recreation of French caves will let visitors experience magic of the ‘prehistoric Sistine chapel’ for first time in decades

...  Today, Lascaux is closed to the public and has been for more than 50 years, after it was discovered visitors were unwittingly destroying the Unesco world heritage site simply by breathing in the caves. But next week, French president François Hollande is expected to open a meticulous €57m (£48m) replica of the grotto that attempts to recreate the magic and detail of the original.

Germinal Peiro, the local MP, said it was the first time such an ambitious project had been attempted. “Lascaux is chez nous, but it doesn’t belong to us and we have always wanted to share these spectacular paintings with the world. This is the first copy of a grotto of this size in the world and it is a work of art in itself,” Peiro told the Observer during a pre-opening tour of the project, known as Lascaux-4.

Stepping into the replica grotto, built 800 metres down the hill from the original with the same sombre, humid atmosphere, visitors are greeted with paintings of herds of animals, overlaid on earlier older paintings or etched into stone, that have taken a dedicated team of modellers, sculptors and artists three years to reproduce, as near to the Cro-Magnon original as possible. [...] The Guardian